PIG NUTRITION

PIG NUTRITION

The profitability of a piggery is very sensitive to the price of feeds used, the efficiency of the piggery’s pig genotype to convert feed into meat and the price for market pigs at any particular time. To maximize profits, a delicate compromise must be reached between minimizing feed costs and maximizing pig meat returns.
Feed costs can vary between 55 and 70 per cent of a piggery’s total operating costs. Reducing feed costs by using poor-quality diets may not be very economical, as feed usage would be higher and pig meat returns lower because of poor carcass grading. Using very high-quality diets or severely restricting feed intake does not improve carcass quality and returns.

Reducing feed quality will prolong maturity period

Low quality feed which are majorly fibres (filler)
Makes your pigs eat more because they will not be easily satisfied because of the low energy intake in poor quality feed
Example of high fibre feed is feeding pigs PKC and brewery waste only
To achieve a profitable compromise, pigs must be fed diets that satisfy their needs to reach their potential for lean meat growth, in the case of growers. This requires an understanding of the various nutrients and their importance. The feeding strategy used to maximize growth, consistent with producing carcass of acceptable market grading, is also important.

Meeting your pigs nutrient requirement its every crucial in this business

For optimum feed utilization, nutrients must be provided in balanced amounts and at levels that satisfy the pig’s needs for maintenance, growth and reproduction.
Our pigs feed must content energy (carbohydrates), protein, vitamin, mineral, fat and oil,
*Energy*

This is the most basic of all nutrients. Every activity of the body, whether physical or metabolic, requires energy. If energy supply (or food) is limited, the priority of its use within the body goes to essential maintenance functions to the detriment of the processes involved in reproduction and growth. Conversely, when there is an abundant supply of energy, growth accelerates to the rates permitted by the availability of other nutrients and the animal’s genetic make-up (genotype). Any energy consumed above these needs is stored in the body as fat.
When your pigs are fed with well-balanced energy diet, it make and grow well and also add more weight faster, because unused energy its store in body as glycogen and fat
Protein (Amino acids)

Amino acids are the chemical building blocks of protein (meat) and at least 20 different types occur in nature. A pig needs only eight or nine of these in its diet – the ‘essential’ amino acids. The pig’s body can synthesize the remaining ‘non-essential’ amino acids. When pigs are fed grain-based diets, several essential amino acids are likely to be deficient: lysine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan and isoleucine. As all amino acids must be present in their correct balance for protein synthesis to occur, the essential amino acid is in least supply – the most limiting amino acid – determines the rate at which protein synthesis occurs.
Amino acid profile in pig feed formulation should be balance to meet there nutrients requirements
Protein source is what makes you pigs build up there flesh, tissue and organs

Lysine as the first limiting amino acid should be added to their feed always

Including methionine as well
Note: source of protein in pig’s diets includes
Soya bean meal
Groundnut cake
Blood meal
5% max
Fish meal
Milk waste
Etc.
Maize, white sorghum, whole wheat, cassava meal, cassava grit, cassava chips,
Agro industrial waste
Like
Macaroni, cerelac, indomie, semo, flour, spaghetti
Etc
Vitamins

These essential substances play important roles in regulating many biochemical processes in the body. Feedstuffs typically used in pig diets contain various amounts of most vitamins; however, the relative availability of these can vary substantially. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately allow for any contribution from feed. To overcome this, adding a supplement to the diet that contains most of the vitamins is useful. This is a relatively inexpensive form of insurance against vitamin deficiencies, and may help reduce the effects of disease and environmental stresses on pig performance. If deficiency problems do occur, you may need to add more of the deficient vitamin

Vitamin premix should be added to pig feed to supply the vitamin needed
At rate of 0.25%
Minerals

Minerals are essential compounds that provide the elements used to maintain the animal’s bone structure and regulate many biochemical processes. The main mineral elements in diet formulation, considered individually, are sodium, chlorine, calcium and phosphorus. Iron, zinc, copper and manganese are also required but only in trace amounts. Usually, these trace elements are added to the diet as a mineral premix.

Salt, bone meal , limestone and mineral premix should not be over looked in pig feeds
Other nutrients and diet components

Pigs need certain essential fats that feedstuffs used in normal diets usually provide sufficiently.

Fibre is another diet component that must be considered occasionally.

Breeder diets must contain sufficient fibre to satisfy appetite through a bulking effect and reduce constipation in these older animals.

Weaners must be given diets that contain no more than 20% fibre because young pigs cannot easily digest it (they may scour) and the high fibre restricts the intake of required nutrients due to their small stomach capacity.
Source of fat: soya oil, full fat soya, palm oil, fish oil etc
Fibre source: wheat offal, palm kennel cake, brewery dry grain, sesame offal, corn offal, rice bran, rice husk etc
In summer months (dry season), pigs need diets that are low in fibre because their body generates more heat during fibre digestion.

If low feed intakes are a problem, higher amounts of fat can be used in diets because fat is easily digested.

Good-quality water with low dissolved-salt content and low bacteriological levels should always be freely available to all pigs.
Pigs should be fed clean and fresh water ad-libtum

The profitability of a piggery is very sensitive to the price of feeds used, the efficiency of the piggery’s pig genotype to convert feed into meat and the price for market pigs at any particular time. To maximize profits, a delicate compromise must be reached between minimizing feed costs and maximizing pig meat returns.
Feed costs can vary between 55 and 70 per cent of a piggery’s total operating costs. Reducing feed costs by using poor-quality diets may not be very economical, as feed usage would be higher and pig meat returns lower because of poor carcass grading. Using very high-quality diets or severely restricting feed intake does not improve carcass quality and returns.

Reducing feed quality will prolong maturity period

Low quality feed which are majorly fibres (filler)
Makes your pigs eat more because they will not be easily satisfied because of the low energy intake in poor quality feed
Example of high fibre feed is feeding pigs PKC and brewery waste only
To achieve a profitable compromise, pigs must be fed diets that satisfy their needs to reach their potential for lean meat growth, in the case of growers. This requires an understanding of the various nutrients and their importance. The feeding strategy used to maximize growth, consistent with producing carcass of acceptable market grading, is also important.

Meeting your pigs nutrient requirement its every crucial in this business

For optimum feed utilization, nutrients must be provided in balanced amounts and at levels that satisfy the pig’s needs for maintenance, growth and reproduction.
Our pigs feed must content energy (carbohydrates), protein, vitamin, mineral, fat and oil,
Energy

This is the most basic of all nutrients. Every activity of the body, whether physical or metabolic, requires energy. If energy supply (or food) is limited, the priority of its use within the body goes to essential maintenance functions to the detriment of the processes involved in reproduction and growth. Conversely, when there is an abundant supply of energy, growth accelerates to the rates permitted by the availability of other nutrients and the animal’s genetic make-up (genotype). Any energy consumed above these needs are stored in the body as fat.
When your pigs are fed with well-balanced energy diet, it make and grow well and also add more weight faster, because unused energy its store in body as glycogen and fat
Protein (Amino acids)

Amino acids are the chemical building blocks of protein (meat) and at least 20 different types occur in nature. A pig needs only eight or nine of these in its diet – the ‘essential’ amino acids. The pig’s body can synthesize the remaining ‘non-essential’ amino acids. When pigs are fed grain-based diets, several essential amino acids are likely to be deficient: lysine, threonine, methionine, tryptophan and isoleucine. As all amino acids must be present in their correct balance for protein synthesis to occur, the essential amino acid is in least supply – the most limiting amino acid – determines the rate at which protein synthesis occurs.
Amino acid profile in pig feed formulation should be balance to meet there nutrients requirements
Protein source is what makes you pigs build up there flesh, tissue and organs

Lysine as the first limiting amino acid should be added to their feed always

Including methionine as well
Note: source of protein in pig’s diets includes
Soya bean meal
Groundnut cake
Blood meal
5% max
Fish meal
Milk waste
etc.
Maize, white sorghum, whole wheat, cassava meal, cassava grit, cassava chips,
Agro industrial waste
Like
Macaroni, cerelac, indomie, semo, flour, spaghetti
Etc.
Vitamins

These essential substances play important roles in regulating many biochemical processes in the body. Feedstuffs typically used in pig diets contain various amounts of most vitamins; however, the relative availability of these can vary substantially. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately allow for any contribution from feed. To overcome this, adding a supplement to the diet that contains most of the vitamins is useful. This is a relatively inexpensive form of insurance against vitamin deficiencies, and may help reduce the effects of disease and environmental stresses on pig performance. If deficiency problems do occur, you may need to add more of the deficient vitamin

Vitamin premix should be added to pig feed to supply the vitamin needed
At rate of 0.25%
Minerals

Minerals are essential compounds that provide the elements used to maintain the animal’s bone structure and regulate many biochemical processes. The main mineral elements in diet formulation, considered individually, are sodium, chlorine, calcium and phosphorus. Iron, zinc, copper and manganese are also required but only in trace amounts. Usually, these trace elements are added to the diet as a mineral premix.

Salt, bone meal, limestone and mineral premix should not be over looked in pig feeds
Other nutrients and diet components

Pigs need certain essential fats that feedstuffs used in normal diets usually provide sufficiently.

Fibre is another diet component that must be considered occasionally.

Breeder diets must contain sufficient fibre to satisfy appetite through a bulking effect and reduce constipation in these older animals.

Weaners must be given diets that contain no more than 20% fibre because young pigs cannot easily digest it (they may scour) and the high fibre restricts the intake of required nutrients due to their small stomach capacity.
Source of fat: soya oil, full fat soya, palm oil, fish oil etc
Fibre source: wheat offal, palm kennel cake, brewery dry grain, sesame offal, corn offal, rice bran, rice husk etc
In summer months (dry season), pigs need diets that are low in fibre because their body generates more heat during fibre digestion.

If low feed intakes are a problem, higher amounts of fat can be used in diets because fat is easily digested.

Good-quality water with low dissolved-salt content and low bacteriological levels should always be freely available to all pigs.
Pigs should be fed clean and fresh water ad-libtum

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