The three diseases mentioned above many a times confuses many poultry farmers.Below is an article that will help to understand the three diseases,how to prevent and control them.


Its caused by a pox virus and mostly affects chicken. There is also a pigeon pox virus and a turkey pox virus. Possible ways in which the virus can spread include,

  1. commonly the virus is shed from fowl pox wounds on affected birds and enter its next victim through the skin wounds. Normally healthy chicken skin will act as an effective barrier to fowl pox virus
  2. biting insects such as mosquitoes and lice can carry the virus from one bird to another

Once in the skin, the Virus reproduces and form ‘pocks’ which start off as raised areas which then bust releasing a tiny amount of pus to leave scrub like crusted raised areas which are often brownish in colour. This woulds are mostly seen in featherless skins such as the legs, combs, eyelids and wattles. This is called the ‘dry form’ of fowl pox.

Birdsay stop laying and loose weight.In servers cases birds find it hard to open their eyes due to the affected eyelids.

Rarely the virus can infect the mouth, oesophagus(food pipe) and the trachea(wind pipe) initially to form a white lump layer of mucus which obstruct the wind pipe making it hard for the chicken to breath and to eat.This is call the ‘wet form’ of fowl pox.

Preventive measures include vaccination at six weeks of age via wing web stab,control of local insect population.Chicken vet have a wide range of  insect control products.

Chicken which survive this are left with permanent scars and are forever immune to the disease.

As with all diseases overall hygiene and keeping the birds stress free as possible will help.

The virus can survive for long in the environment,always use recommended disinfectants to clean the coops and the equipment.



Its a disease caused by the bacterium salmonella gallinarum.Poultry are natural host to the bacterium.

The disease can be introduced into a flock by wild birds,mammal and flies.

Healthy chicken also get infected when they come into contact with sick ones or if they peck at infected carcasses. Wound and fecal contamination, feeds water and litter.In addition the bacteria can spread to chicks in the eggs.

Chicks hatched from eggs infected with the salmonella gallinarum sicken and die within weeks of hatching.Infected chicks exhibit weakness, poor appetite and stunted growth and they may make shrill chipping and peeping sounds.In addition their droppings are chalky white.

Fortunately the disease has a vaccine given at 8 weeks of age through intramuscular injection.

Recovered birds tend to be carriers,it is best to depopulate a flock that tests. positive for salmonella gallinarium.

NB.Fowl typhoid is a reportable disease. If you suspect a flock has this disease contact your state veterinarian.



Its a serious highly contagious disease mostly common during cold and rainy season, caused by a bacterium pasteurella multocida in a range of avian species including chicken,Turkey and water fowls.

The route of transmission is oral or nasal transmission via nasal oxudate,faeces,contaminated soil,equipments and people.Rodents,cats and dogs,infected carcasses can also spread the disease.

Signs are dejection,ruffled feathers, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, coughing nasal and oral discharge.

Swollen and cyanotic wattles,sudden death, swollen joints,lameness and injured wattles.

Prevention measures include strict biosecurity measures like limiting movement of people in and out of the farm,disinfect the coop and the equipments regularly.Good rodent control and proper disposal of carcasses


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